The Green Line in Cyprus

The United Nations takes over.....later years

One year into the UNFICYP mandate, the UN General Secretary felt that, "little progress had been made with the main unresolved issues despite its persistent efforts and repeated appeals".........the taking of hostages, freedom of movement, economic restrictions and the removal of fortifications.
The every day task, "to use UNFICYP's best efforts to prevent a recurrent of fighting and, as necessary, to contribute to the maintenance and restoration of law and order and a return to normal conditions" continued.

A Finnish soldier patrols 'The Green Line' running through the village of Omorfita, on the outskirts of Nicosia.......dated April 1965
This village was the scene of major conflict in 1963/64

On the 23rd July 1966 an incident began in the village of Melouseia (often spelled Melousha in UN reports). It appears that a Cyprus police vehicle drove through the village in an "apparently belligerent manner" and then set up a road block on the eastern edge. Turkish Cypriot fighters from the village and surrounding areas moved to occupy their defensive positions and prevented any attempt by the police vehicle from re-entering the village. 

Images from the 'Blue Beret' magazine dated 3rd August this link for a larger image

The UN were informed that the National Guard intended to attack the village. A small force of Swedish UN soldiers was immediately sent to Melouseia and while UN HQ "played for time" they were reinforced by Danish and Finnish infantry as well as Canadian artillery (the resulting UN force was larger than the attacking National Guard).
General Grivas was informed that any attack on the Turkish village would be met by force if his soldiers approached closer than 200m from the UN positions.
The National Guard Chief of Staff contacted the local commander and the advance was halted, it is reported, when they were 250m away from UN positions.

COMBINED OPERATION —On 23/24 July, an Inter-com­munal incident at Melousha threatened to take on more serious proportions. UNFICYP quickly moved in to interpose itself and avoid a possible recurrence of fighting. In this operation, within UNFICYP Famagusta Zone where the Swedish Contingent is deploy­ed, UNFICYP men belonging to SWECON, FINCON and CANCON worked together as a combined operation under the Zone command. 

Image and text from the 'Blue Beret' magazine dated 3rd August 1966

A serious intercommunal incident occurred at Mari in April 1967 when it was reported that a Greek Cypriot National Guard armoured car was fired upon by Turkish Cypriot positions overlooking the main road between Limassol and Nicosia.
Fire was returned by the National Guard with machine guns and mortar rounds. 
Eventually, after further outbreaks of shooting, British and Swedish UN troops positioned themselves between the two sides and hoisted the UN flag.

It is believed that the casualty figures were exaggerated as the UN could only confirm one Turkish Cypriot lady with a minor leg wound

Author's note: In 1973, when driving to the ESBA every weekend, I always used to wave to the UN position that was still on the edge of the ridge
In 2014 I went up to the location to discover the remains of the OP

Serious fighting in the Ayios Theodorous-Kophinou area in November 1967 brought Greece and Turkey to the brink of war.
In a situation similar to the earlier Mari incident, a Greek Cypriot police patrol was stopped and then fired upon as it attempted to drive through the Turkish Cypriot part of the village. The incident quickly escalated with the National Guard (controlled by General Grivas) fiercely engaging Turkish Cypriot positions in the area. This resulted in the deaths of 24 Turkish Cypriots and 2 Greek Cypriots.
Turkish jets began immediately to fly over Cyprus and troops were massed on the mainland Greek/Turkish border.
International pressure defused the crisis and General Grivas was ordered to return to Athens.

Headline from the Cyprus Mail dated November 16th 1967

UNFICYP had maintained a strong presence in the village of Ayios Theodoros and at other locations in the surrounding area since 1964

In 1968, the UN Secretary General was able to report that, "the situation during the last six months has remained calm although there have been a few incidents which have caused tension in certain areas. There continues to be a general desire to maintain peaceful conditions, and the growing co-operation in some fields between Greek and Turkish Cypriots creates a favourable atmosphere for the current inter-communal talks".

UN positions across the island continued to monitor and mediate as necessary.

British UN soldiers based in the Limassol area help local farmers harvesting their carobs.......dated September 1968

In September 1973 there was an incident (described below) which exemplified what U Thant, the Secretary General of the United Nations, wrote in 1964.

"Suspicion and a lack of mutual confidence dominate relations between the two communities. Constructive initiative and non-interference are inevitably and invariably misinterpreted by one side or the other."

"A Turkish Cypriot bank manager decided to build himself a house right on the Green Line. This was at a sensitive and disputed point on the Line and the National Guard protested that it was a Turkish ruse to move the Line forward and establish a military strongpoint on it. The matter gave rise to mounting tension and a threat of action by the National Guard. When the (Turkish) Leadership professed not to have the authority to halt construction UNFICYP decided to intervene. Under cover of darkness a small UN post, found by the Finns in whose operational area it lay, was deployed right on the spot where the foundations were being prepared, a UN flag was hoisted and the post was surrounded with barbed wire. When Turks turned up in the morning to resume work, they were told politely that this was a UN post (nicknamed 'Piknik 2' - a reference to a nearby restaurant) to which entry was not permitted. Both sides accepted without demur what UNFICYP had done and a potentially explosive situation had been defused"
Extract from: 'A Business of Some Heat' by Brigadier Francis Henn.

At the start of 1974 the divisions in Cyprus could be described as the 'Green Line' which ran through Nicosia and a number of other 'mini-Green Lines' that observed and demarcated the two communities in towns and villages. The map below (dated 1972) shows how the UN presence was spread throughout the island.

Click this link for a larger image (opens in a new window)

Perversely, it was conflict within the Greek and Greek Cypriot communities that would write the next chapter of "The Green Line".