The Three Surrenders

Dramatis Personae

General  Aleksei Antonov
A Soviet general who rose to be Head of Operations and Deputy Chief of Staff of the Red Army from 1942 to 1945.
He died in 1962 aged 66.

Admiral Sir Harold Burrough
A senior Royal Navy officer and Assistant Chief of Naval Staff to the Royal Navy during World War II.
He died in 1977 aged 88.

Lt Ivan Cherniaeff
The translator for Major-General Ivan Sousloparov at the Reims surrender ceremony.
Nothing further is known about his career.

General Miles Dempsey
A senior British officer who commanded the British Second Army during the Battle of Normandy and throughout the rest of the campaign in North-western Europe. He died in 1969 aged 72.

Groß Admiral Karl Dönitz
An Admiral who was named Hitler's successor as Head of State and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.
Following the Nurenberg trials, he received ten years imprisonment and died in 1980 aged 89.

Mr Allan Dulles
An American diplomat and lawyer who became the first civilian Director of Central Intelligence.
He died in 1969 aged 75.

General Dwight D Eisenhower
The Supreme Allied Commander who became the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961.
He died in 1969 aged 78.

General Admiral Hans-Georg von Friedeburg
He became Commander-in-Chief of the Kriegsmarine and was promoted to Generaladmiral on 1st May 1945.
Following the arrest of the Flensburg Government he was unable to endure the defeat of his country and committed suicide by poison on the 23rd May 1945. He was 49 years old.

Major Hans Jochen Friedel
Major Friedel was killed in a car accident in France in May 1945.

General Alfred Jodl
A German military commander who attained the position of Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command.
At the Nurenberg trials he was found to be a war criminal and was hanged on the 16th October 1946 aged 56.
Somewhat controversially, on February 28 1953, Jodl was posthumously exonerated by a German de-Nazification court.

General Wilhelm Keitel
A German field marshal who served as chief of the Supreme High Command of the German Armed Forces for most of World War II. At Nuremberg, he was tried and sentenced to death as a war criminal. He was the third highest-ranking German officer to be tried at Nuremberg. He was hanged on the 16th October 1946 aged 63.

General Eberhard Kinzel
A highly decorated General der Infanterie in World War II and was part of the delegation that participated in the surrender negotiations with Field-Marshal Montgomery. Eberhard Kinzel, together with his girlfriend Erika von Aschoff, committed suicide on the 23rd May 1945.

Captain Derek Knee
An intelligence officer who was the interpreter for Field Marshal Montgomery. He died in 2014 aged 91.

Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk
A senior German government official who became the Leading Minister of the German Reich in the short-lived Flensburg government. Convicted of war crimes in 1949, he was jailed for ten years but granted amnesty in 1951.
He became an author and publicist. He died in 1977 aged 89.

General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny
A notable French military commander during World War II and the First Indochina War. He died in 1952 aged 62.

Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery
After playing a significant role in WW2 he became Commander-in-Chief of the British Army of the Rhine (BAOR) in Germany and then Chief of the Imperial General Staff. He died in 1976 aged 88.

Major General W D Morgan
Maj Gen W. D. Morgan was the Chief of Staff of the 21st Army Group. Nothing further is known about this officer.

Major Wilhelm Oxenius
Major Oxenius was a prisoner of war from 10th May 1945 to 3rd January 1948 and died in 1979 aged 66.

Col Fritz Poleck
After his release from captivity in 1947 he joined the Gehlen Organization (the forerunner to the Federal German Intelligence Service). In 1957 he returned to army service as a colonel. He died in 1989 aged 84.

Lt Col Victor von Schweinitz
Following his role in the Italian surrender, nothing further is known about this officer.

General François Sevez
In 1948, whilst out hunting, he was hit by a bullet that ricocheted off the thick skin of a wild boar. He died on the 29th February 1948 aged 56.

General Walter Bedell Smith
He was General Eisenhower's chief-of-staff at the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) from 1944 through 1945. After World War II, he served as the U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union from 1946 to 1948. Then in 1950, Smith became the head of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and other intelligence agencies in the United States. He died in 1961 aged 65.

General Carl Spaatz
The commander of Strategic Air Forces in Europe. He became Chief of Staff of the newly-formed United States Air Force in 1947. Spaatz died in 1974 aged 83.

Colonel General Hans-Jürgen Stumpff
He was a general of the Luftwaffe and was released from British captivity in 1947. He died in 1968 aged 78.

Major General Ivan Susloparov:
The Soviet Liaison Officer who attended the surrender ceremony in Reims.
Some reports say that General Susloparov vanished into the hands of the Soviet Secret Police, never to be seen again. However, it is known that post war he worked in the Military Diplomatic Academy in Moscow and died in 1974 aged 77 years.

Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Tedder
He was appointed Deputy Supreme Commander under General Eisenhower. After the war he served as Chief of the Air Staff. He doubled the size of RAF Fighter Command and implemented arrangements for the Berlin Airlift in 1948. He died in 1967 aged 76.

General Heinrich von Vietinghoff
He was the commander of the German and Italian troops in German-occupied Italy in 1945. After the war, he spent two and a half years in British captivity and was released in September 1947. He died in 1952 aged 64.

Andrei Vyshinsky
He was a state prosecutor of Stalin's Moscow trials and in the Nuremberg trials. He was the Soviet Foreign Minister from 1949 to 1953. He died in 1954 aged 70.

Rear Admiral Gerhard Wagner
In the postwar Germany he was the first flag officer to hold the position of the integrated NATO Commander Naval Forces Baltic Approaches. He died in 1987 aged 88.

Lt. Col. Trumbull Warren
For his services he was awarded the OBE. He became a businessman whose company made water heaters. He ran the business from 1946 to 1976 when he retired. He died in 1999 aged 86.

Sturmbannfuhrer Eugen Wenner
Following his role in Operation Sunrise, he was made a PoW. It is believed that he was given new identity documents and "vanished" into the CIA. Nothing else is known about this officer.

General Karl Wolff
He was arrested and imprisoned in May 1945. During the Nuremberg trials, he escaped prosecution by providing evidence against his fellow Nazis. In January 1947 he was transferred to a British prison in Minden.
Following his release in 1947 it is alleged that he worked for the CIA at the same time as developing his public relations company. He died 1984 aged 84.

Colonel Yvan Zenkovitch
Following his appearance in Reims nothing further is known about this officer.

Marshal Georgi Zhukov
After the German capitulation, Zhukov became the first commander of the Soviet Occupation Zone in Germany. After Stalin's death, he became the Deputy Defence Minister in 1953. He retired in 1959 and died in 1974 aged 77.